Courts in Texas
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Judges by County
The Courts in Texas includes a state court system and eight federal courts.
The Texas court system consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Criminal Appeals, Courts of Appeal, District Courts, County Courts, County Courts at Law, Probate Courts, Justice of the Peace Courts and Municipal Courts.
The Court of Criminal Appeals is the second of two courts of last resort. It handles appeals for criminal matters in the state. 
The District Courts are the trial courts of general jurisdiction. There are over 450 District Courts in Texas and each county has at least one.
There is one County Court in each of the 254 counties. These courts hear probate cases, class A and B misdemeanor criminal cases, and appeals from the Justice of the Peace and Municipal Courts if no County Courts at Law are present. The county judge is the administrative leader of the rest of the county government.
There are 227 County Courts at Law in that state. These courts were created by the Legislature to aid the Constitutional County Courts. Their jurisdiction varies, but they usually hear appeals from the lower courts.
In the counties where these courts are located, the Statutory Probate Courts take the place of the Constitutional County Court in probate matters, guardianship cases and mental health commitments.
There are 822 Justice of the Peace Courts in the state. These courts deal with the less serious minor criminal cases, minor civil matters and small claims.
There are 915 Municipal Courts in Texas which deal with violations of city ordinances and have the same jurisdiction as the justice of the peace courts in minor criminal cases. They do not have jurisdiction in most civil cases.
There are 8 federal courts in Texas:
- Eastern District of Texas
- Northern District of Texas
- Southern District of Texas
- Western District of Texas
- Eastern District of Texas Bankruptcy Court
- Northern District of Texas Bankruptcy Court
- Southern District of Texas Bankruptcy Court
- Western District of Texas Bankruptcy Court
Appeals from these courts are heard in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.