Illinois Supreme Court

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Illinois Supreme Court
200pxSSCBadgeforVNT.png
Court information
Justices:   7
Founded:   1818
Salary
Chief:  $211,000
Associates:  $211,000
Judicial selection
Method:   Partisan election of judges
Term:   10 years
Active justices

Robert Thomas  •  Lloyd Karmeier  •  Charles Freeman  •  Rita Garman  •  Thomas Kilbride  •  Mary Jane Theis  •  Anne M. Burke  •  

Seal of Illinois.png
The court's five judicial districts

The Illinois Supreme Court is the highest court in Illinois. The court includes seven justices who are elected to ten-year terms in partisan elections. The court hears appeals from the lower courts and has limited original jurisdiction. It also serves as the administrative head of the state's court system. It convenes in Springfield, Ill. on the second Monday in the following months: September, November, January, March and May. Between sessions, the justices review legal documents and prepare opinions.[1][2]

Justices

The current justices of the court are:
JudgeTermParty
Justice Robert Thomas2000-2020Republican
Justice Lloyd Karmeier2004-2014Republican
Justice Charles Freeman1990-2020Democratic
Chief Justice Rita Garman2001-2022Republican
Justice Thomas Kilbride2000-2020Democratic
Justice Mary Jane Theis2010-2022Democratic
Justice Anne M. Burke2006-2018Democratic


Judicial selection

Main article: Illinois Supreme Court elections

Justices on the court are elected to ten-year terms in partisan elections. Each justice represents one of the five judicial districts in Illinois. The First District, which consists of Cook County and the City of Chicago, elects three of the justices; the remaining four choose one each.[3] To be re-elected, the justice must run in an uncontested, non-partisan retention election in which at least 60% of votes must be in favor of retention.

If a vacancy on the court occurs, the court itself appoints a new justice. The Illinois Supreme Court is the only court in the nation that fills its own vacancies.[4]After the appointment, that justice must run for a full term in the next general election that is more than 60 days after the appointment.[5]

Chief justice

The chief justice is elected by the justices of the supreme court for a three-year term.[6]

Qualifications

Illinois judges must meet the following qualifications:

  • United States citizen
  • Licensed attorney of Illinois
  • Resident of the district which elects them[7][8]

The mandatory retirement age for judges of all courts in Illinois used to be 75, as defined by the Compulsory Retirement of Judges Act. However, the state supreme court deemed this law unconstitutional in 2009.[9][10]

Jurisdiction

The court has limited original jurisdiction, hears appeals of right in cases where the constitutionality of laws has been called into question, and has a docket of discretionary appeal from the Illinois Appellate Court. Along with the state legislature, the court sets rules for the state judiciary. The court has general administrative and supervisory authority over all courts in the state. This authority is exercised by the chief justice with the assistance of the Administrative Director and staff appointed by the supreme court. The supreme court hears appeals from lower courts and may exercise original jurisdiction in cases relating to revenue, mandamus, prohibition or habeas corpus. Its members also have the authority to appoint trial judges to the appellate court on a temporary basis.[2]

Caseloads

Fiscal Year Filings Dispositions
2012
2011 2,906 3,104
2010 3,014 2,922
2009 2,729 2,897
2008 2,955 2,825
2007 2,836 2,962
[11]

Elections

[edit]

Retention

JudgeElection Vote
KarmeierLloyd Karmeier    

See also: Illinois judicial elections, 2012

In the 2012 race, incumbent Democrat Mary Jane Theis handily defeated her Republican opponent, James G. Riley. Theis, who was appointed in 2010, was favored to win.

CandidateIncumbencyPartyPredecessorPrimary VoteElection Vote
PucinskiAurelia Marie Pucinski    NoDemocraticVacancy of Thomas Fitzgerald21% 
RileyJames G. Riley    NoRepublicanVacancy of Thomas Fitzgerald25.3%   DefeatedD
CunninghamJoy Cunningham    NoDemocraticVacancy of Thomas Fitzgerald23% 
TheisMary Jane Theis   ApprovedAYesDemocraticVacancy of Thomas Fitzgerald48%ApprovedA74.7%   ApprovedA
GarmanRita Garman   ApprovedAYesRepublican   ApprovedA
FlanniganThomas W. Flannigan    NoDemocraticVacancy of Thomas Fitzgerald7% 

See also: 2010 State Supreme Court elections

Justices Charles Freeman, Robert Thomas, and Thomas Kilbride all faced retention elections in 2010 and were re-elected to the court.

Illinois Supreme Court
2010 General election results
Candidates Votes Percent
Charles Freeman (D) BallotCheckMark.png n/a 78%
Illinois Supreme Court
2010 General election results
Candidates Votes Percent
Robert Thomas (R) BallotCheckMark.png n/a 81%
Illinois Supreme Court
2010 General election results
Candidates Votes Percent
Thomas Kilbride BallotCheckMark.png n/a 66%

See also: State Supreme Court elections, 2008

Anne M. Burke was retained in the 2008 election.

Illinois Supreme Court
2008 General election results
Candidates Votes Percent
Anne M. Burke (D) BallotCheckMark.png n/a n/a

Political outlook

Justices of the Illinois Supreme Court
See also: Political outlook of State Supreme Court Justices

In October 2012, political science professors Adam Bonica and Michael Woodruff of Stanford University attempted to determine the partisan outlook of State Supreme Court justices in their paper, State Supreme Court Ideology and 'New Style' Judicial Campaigns. A score above 0 indicated a more conservative leaning ideology while scores below 0 were more liberal. The state Supreme Court of Illinois was given a Campaign finance score (CFscore) which was calculated for judges in October 2012. At that time, Illinois received a score of -0.31. Based on the justices selected, Illinois was the 15th most liberal court. The study is based on data from campaign contributions by judges themselves, the partisan leaning of contributors to the judges or, in the absence of elections, the ideology of the appointing body (governor or legislature). This study is not a definitive label of a justice but rather, an academic gauge of various factors.[12]

Rules of practice and procedure in Illinois courts

The Illinois Supreme Court sets the rules of practice and procedure for the state's judicial system. The court has adopted the following rules:

Sessions of the court

Illinois Supreme Court building

Most cases before the supreme court are allotted a total of 50 minutes for oral arguments--20 minutes for opening arguments, 20 minutes for replies and 10 minutes for rebuttals.[1]

Building

Supreme Court building interior

The Supreme Court Building was completed in 1908 and cost $450,500.[14]

Ethics

Financial disclosure

See also: Center for Public Integrity Study on State Supreme Court Disclosure Requirements

In December 2013, the Center for Public Integrity released a study on disclosure requirements for state supreme court judges. Analysts from the Center reviewed the rules governing financial disclosure in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, as well as personal financial disclosures for the past three years. The study found that 42 states and Washington D.C. received failing grades. Illinois earned a grade of D in the study. No state received a grade higher than "C". Furthermore, due in part to these lax disclosure standards, the study found 35 instances of questionable gifts, investments overlapping with caseloads and similar potential ethical quandaries. The study also noted 14 cases in which justices participated although they or their spouses held stock in the company involved in the litigation.[15]

Removal of justices

The Illinois Judicial Inquiry Board is responsible for filing any necessary complaints against a justice with the Illinois Courts Commission. After a hearing, the commission may take various disciplinary actions against the justice, which can include removal from the bench.

Justices may also be impeached by the state legislature. This requires a majority vote of the house of representatives and a two-thirds vote of the senate.[16]

Reform proposals

In the years since the convention of 1970, there have been multiple attempts to reform the court, and specifically to change the method of judicial selection. Proponents have included the Illinois State Bar Association, the Chicago Bar Association and the League of Women Voters of Illinois. None of those efforts were successful.[17]

Reappointments in Cook County

The supreme court has been found to be using its recall power to put a number of Cook County Circuit Court judges back in office, contrary to voters' decisions at the polls. In 1993, the court promised to stop this practice. However, a review by the Chicago Tribune found that, since 2000, the supreme court had reappointed 18 judges to the Cook County Circuit Court who had been ousted by voters. David Morrison, deputy director of the Illinois Campaign for Political Reform, said that this practice, which has gone on for a long time, violates the will of the voters. In August of 2011, a court spokesman said that the justices decided to end the practice earlier that year.[18]

Notable cases

History

On December 3, 1818, President Monroe signed legislature to allow Illinois to enter the Union as a state. The Illinois Constitution provided for the judicial system in Article IV. The first supreme court had four justices who were to be appointed by the General Assembly. The court had appellate jurisdiction in all cases other than cases involving revenue, mandamus, habeas corpus and impeachment, in which it had original jurisdiction.[32]

The first supreme court justices served until 1824, at which point the General Assembly appointed new justices, who had life tenure during good behavior.

In 1841, after being legislated in and out of existence, all circuit courts were dissolved with legislation. To uphold the caseload, five new supreme court justices were appointed, creating a total of nine. This system remained until 1848 when the second Illinois Constitution was adopted.[32]

Constitution of 1848

In 1848, the Illinois Constitution was amended, and Article V established a supreme court with only three justices. These justices were to be elected by popular vote for nine-year terms. The court convened only one time annually in each division. The justices were elected for nine-year terms by popular vote, and represented each of the three divisions of the state. The court's jurisdiction remained the same--original jurisdiction in cases of revenue, mandamus, habeas corpus, and impeachment, and appellate jurisdiction in all other cases.[32]

Constitution of 1870

As the urban areas of Illinois grew (specifically around Chicago), a new constitution was required to handle the needs of a state that was part rural and part urban. The Constitution of 1870 provided seven justices with seven districts for the supreme court. A quorum consisted of four justices and the agreement of at least four justices was necessary for a decision. The jurisdiction and term lengths remained the same.

The court was required to hold annual terms in each of the three divisions created by the Constitution of 1848. At least one of those terms had to be held in Chicago. This was changed in 1879, when legislation was passed to require the court to hold terms only in Springfield. Additionally, the law gave the court authority to make rules for the rest of the state's judicial system.[32]

The Judicial Article of 1964

The Judicial Article of 1964 amended Article VI of the Constitution of 1870, particularly to address issues in Chicago's judicial system. It simplified the state's court structure into a supreme court, an appellate court and circuit courts. The supreme court was allotted seven justices. These justices were elected from five districts; three were elected from the First Judicial District, which included Cook County and the City of Chicago, and the other four districts each elected one judge. Term lengths were increased to ten years.

The supreme court was also given administrative authority over the state judicial system. This authority was tasked to a chief justice, who served a three-year term and was selected by his or her fellow justices.

The act also required that all justices in Illinois be citizens, licensed attorneys in the state, and a resident of the area from which he or she was elected.

Selected text from the Judicial Article of 1964:

SUPREME COURT

Section 4. Organization.

The Supreme Court shall consist of seven judges, three of whom shall be selected from the First Judicial District and one each from the Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Judicial Districts. Four judges shall constitute a quorum and the concurrence of four shall be necessary to a decision. The judges of the Supreme Court shall select one of their number to serve as Chief Justice for a term of three years.

Section 5. Jurisdiction.

The Supreme Court may exercise original jurisdiction in cases relating to the revenue, mandamus, prohibition and habeas corpus, such original jurisdiction as may be necessary to the complete determination of any cause on review, and only appellate jurisdiction in all other cases.

Appeals from the final judgments of circuit courts shall lie directly to the Supreme Court as a matter of right only (a) in cases involving revenue, (b) in cases involving a question arising under the Constitution of the United States or of this State, (c) in cases of habeas corpus, and (d) by the defendant from sentence in capital cases. Subject to law hereafter enacted, the Supreme Court has authority to provide by rule for appeal in other cases from the Circuit Courts directly to the Supreme Court.

Appeals from the Appellate Court shall lie to the Supreme Court as a matter of right only (a) in cases in which a question under the Constitution of the United States or of this State arises for the first time in and as a result of the action of the Appellate Court, and (b) upon the certification by a division of the Appellate Court that a case decided by it involves a question of such importance that it should be decided by the Supreme Court. Subject to rules, appeals from the Appellate Court to the Supreme Court in all other cases shall be by leave of the Supreme Court. [32]

Constitution of 1970

The Article VI of the 1970 Constitution, as part of the most-recent revision to the state's constitution, defines how the judicial system operates today.

First, it decreased the supreme court's mandatory appellate jurisdiction so that only cases involving the death penalty are sent directly from a circuit court to the supreme court, bypassing the intermediate appellate court. Also, the article stated that automatic appeals, or appeals of constitutional right, from the appellate court to the supreme court were to be made in only two instances: 1) if a new constitutional question is presented as a result of an action of the appellate court or 2) if the appellate court itself determines that the case should be determined by the supreme court. This decreased the court's mandatory case load and allowed it more time for its administrative tasks.

The new article also set up the current system of partisan elections of judges through primaries. It also created the Illinois Judicial Inquiry Board, a disciplinary agency for the courts which files and prosecutes complaints before the Illinois Courts Commission. The Courts Commission was originally established by the Judicial Article of 1964, but its authority was slightly redefined in 1970. It is in charge of hearing complaints against judges and disciplining them as needed.[32]

Selected text from the Constitution of 1970:

THE CONSTITUTION OF 1970 ARTICLE VI

THE JUDICIARY

Section 1. Courts.

The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, an Appellate Court and Circuit Courts.

Section 2. Judicial Districts.

The State is divided into five Judicial Districts for the selection of Supreme and Appellate Court judges. The First Judicial District consists of Cook County. The remainder of the State shall be divided by law into four Judicial Districts of substantially equal population, each of which shall be compact and composed of contiguous counties.

Section 3. Supreme Court-Organization.

The Supreme Court shall consist of seven judges. Three shall be selected from the First Judicial District and one from each of the other Judicial Districts. Four Judges constitute a quorum and the concurrence of four is necessary for a decision. Supreme Court Judges shall select a Chief Justice from their number to serve for a term of three years.

Section 4. Supreme Court-Jurisdiction.

a. The Supreme Court may exercise original jurisdiction in cases relating to revenue, mandamus, prohibition or habeas corpus and as may be necessary to the complete determination of any case on review.
b. Appeals from judgments of Circuit Courts imposing a sentence of death shall be directly to the Supreme Court as a matter of right. The Supreme Court shall provide by rule for direct appeal in other cases.
c. Appeals from the Appellate Court to the Supreme Court are a matter of right if a question under the Constitution of the United States or of this State arises for the first time in and as a result of the action of the Appellate Court, or if a division of the Appellate Court certifies that a case decided by it involves a question of such importance that the case should be decided by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court may provide by rule for appeals from the Appellate Court in other cases.

Section 10. Terms Of Office.

The terms of office of Supreme and Appellate Court Judges shall be ten years; of Circuit Judges, six years; and of Associate Judges, four years.

Section 11. Eligibility For Office.

No person shall be eligible to be a Judge or Associate Judge unless he is a United States citizen, a licensed attorney-at-law of this State, and a resident of the unit which selects him. No change in the boundaries of a unit shall affect the tenure in office of a Judge or Associate Judge incumbent at the time of such change.

Section 12. Election And Retention.

a. Supreme, Appellate and Circuit Judges shall be nominated at primary elections or by petition. Judges shall be elected at general or judicial elections as the General Assembly shall provide by law. A person eligible for the office of Judge may cause his name to appear on the ballot as a candidate for Judge at the primary and at the general or judicial elections by submitting petitions. The General Assembly shall prescribe by law the requirements for petitions.
b. The office of a Judge shall be vacant upon his death, resignation, retirement, removal, or upon the conclusion of his term without retention in office. Whenever an additional Appellate or Circuit Judge is authorized by law, the office shall be filled in the manner provided for filling a vacancy in that office.
c. A vacancy occurring in the office of Supreme, Appellate or Circuit Judge shall be filled as the General Assembly may provide by law. In the absence of a law, vacancies may be filled by appointment by the Supreme Court. A person appointed to fill a vacancy 60 or more days prior to the next primary election to nominate Judges shall serve until the vacancy is filled for a term at the next general or judicial election. A person appointed to fill a vacancy less than 60 days prior to the next primary election to nominate Judges shall serve until the vacancy is filled at the second general or judicial election following such appointment.
d. Not less than six months before the general election preceding the expiration of his term of office, a Supreme, Appellate or Circuit Judge who has been elected to that office may file in the office of the Secretary of State a declaration of candidacy to succeed himself. The Secretary of State, not less than 63 days before the election, shall certify the Judge's candidacy to the proper election officials. The names of Judges seeking retention shall be submitted to the electors, separately and without party designation, on the sole question whether each Judge shall be retained in office for another term. The retention elections shall be conducted at general elections in the appropriate Judicial District, for Supreme and Appellate Judges, and in the circuit for Circuit Judges. The affirmative vote of three-fifths of the electors voting on the question shall elect the Judge to the office for a term commencing on the first Monday in December following his election.
e. A law reducing the number of Appellate or Circuit Judges shall be without prejudice to the right of the Judges affected to seek retention in office. A reduction shall become effective when a vacancy occurs in the affected unit.

Section 13. Prohibited Activities.

a. The Supreme Court shall adopt rules of conduct for Judges and Associate Judges.
b. Judges and Associate Judges shall devote full time to judicial duties. They shall not practice law, hold a position of profit, hold office under the United States or this State or unit of local government or school district or in a political party. Service in the State militia or armed forces of the United States for periods of time permitted by rule of the Supreme Court shall not disqualify a person from serving as a Judge or Associate Judge.

Section 14. Judicial Salaries And Expenses--Fee Officers Eliminated.

Judges shall receive salaries provided by law which shall not be diminished to take effect during their terms of office. All salaries and such expenses as may be provided by law shall be paid by the State, except that Appellate, Circuit and Associate Judges shall receive such additional compensation from counties within their district or circuit as may be provided by law. There shall be no fee officers in the judicial system.

Section 15. Retirement--Discipline.

a. The General Assembly may provide by law for the retirement of Judges and Associate Judges at a prescribed age. Any retired Judge or Associate Judge, with his consent, may be assigned by the Supreme Court to judicial service for which he shall receive the applicable compensation in lieu of retirement benefits. A retired Associate Judge may be assigned only as an Associate Judge.
b. A Judicial Inquiry Board is created. The Supreme Court shall select two Circuit Judges as members and the Governor shall appoint four persons who are not lawyers and three lawyers as members of the Board. No more than two of the lawyers and two of the non-lawyers appointed by the Governor shall be members of the same political party. The terms of Board members shall be four years. A vacancy on the Board shall be filled for a full term in the manner the original appointment was made. No member may serve on the Board more than eight years.
c. The Board shall be convened permanently, with authority to conduct investigations, receive or initiate complaints concerning a Judge or Associate Judge, and file complaints with the Courts Commission. The Board shall not file a complaint unless five members believe that a reasonable basis exists (1) to charge the Judge or Associate Judge with willful misconduct in office, persistent failure to perform his duties, or other conduct that is prejudicial to the administration of justice or that brings the judicial office into dispute, or (2) to charge that the Judge or Associate Judge is physically or mentally unable to perform his duties. All proceedings of the Board shall be confidential except the filing of a complaint with the Courts Commission. The Board shall prosecute the complaint.
d. The Board shall adopt rules governing its procedures. It shall have subpoena power and authority to appoint and direct its staff. Members of the Board who are not Judges shall receive per diem compensation and necessary expenses; members who are Judges shall receive necessary expenses only. The General Assembly by law shall appropriate funds for the operation of the Board.
e. A Courts Commission is created consisting of one Supreme Court Judge selected by that Court, who shall be its chairman, two Appellate Court Judges selected by that Court, and Two Circuit Judges selected by the Supreme Court. The Commission shall be convened permanently to hear complaints filed by the Judicial Inquiry Board. The Commission shall have authority after notice and public hearing (1) to remove from office, suspend without pay, censure or reprimand a Judge or Associate Judge for wilful misconduct in office, persistent failure to perform his duties, or other conduct that is prejudicial to the administration of justice or that brings the judicial office into disrepute, or (2) to suspend, with or without pay, or retire a Judge or Associate Judge who is physically or mentally unable to perform his duties.
f. The concurrence of three members of the Commission shall be necessary for a decision. The decision of the Commission shall be final.
g. The Commission shall adopt rules governing its procedures and shall have power to issue subpoenas. The General Assembly shall provide by law for the expenses of the Commission.

Section 16. Administration.

General administrative and supervisory authority over all courts is vested in the Supreme Court and shall be exercised by the Chief Justice in accordance with its rules. The Supreme Court shall appoint an administrative director and staff, who shall serve at its pleasure, to assist the Chief Justice in his duties. The Supreme Court may assign a Judge temporarily to any court and an Associate Judge to serve temporarily as an Associate Judge on any Circuit Court. The Supreme Court shall provide by rule for expeditious and inexpensive appeals.[32]

Notable firsts

  • The late Justice Mary Ann McMorrow was the first woman to join the court (1992) and its first female chief justice (2002-2006). As chief justice, she also held the distinction of being the first woman in Illinois to head one of the three branches of government.[33]
  • The first African-American to join the court was Charles Freeman. He also served as chief justice from 1997 to 2000.[34]

Former justices

Chief justices

Previous chief justices and the dates they served in that role:

  • Michael Anthony Bilandic (1994-97)
  • Thomas Moran (1988-90)
  • William Clark (1985-88)
  • Howard Ryan (1981-84)
  • Roy Solfisburg (1967-1969; 1962-63)
  • John Culbertson (1969)
  • Ray Klingbiel (1964-67; 1956-57)
  • Byron House (1959-60)
  • Joseph Daily (1958-59; 51-52)
  • William Fulton (1944-45)
  • Charles Craig (1916-17)
  • John Hand (1907, 1903)
  • Carroll Boggs (1900-01)[32]

Former justices

See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Illinois Courts - Student Learning Center, "Illinois Supreme Court," accessed March 21, 2014
  2. 2.0 2.1 Illinois General Assembly; Courts: (705 ILCS 25/) Appellate Court Act
  3. Constitution of the State of Illinois, Article VI: The Judiciary
  4. American Judicature Society: Judicial selection in the states
  5. American Judicature Society: Judicial selection in the states: Illinois
  6. Illinois Constitution, Article VI, Section 3
  7. Illinois Constitution, Article VI, Section 11
  8. In the case of redistricting, sitting judges are not required to give up their seats, even if they live outside of the new district they represent. (Illinois Constitution, Article VI, Section 11)
  9. 705 ILCS 55/1 "Compulsory Retirement of Judges Act."
  10. 10.0 10.1 ABA Journal, "Top Illinois Court Axes Mandatory Retirement Law for State Judges," June 18, 2009
  11. Illinois Courts, "Supreme Court Caseload Statistics"
  12. Stanford University, "State Supreme Court Ideology and 'New Style' Judicial Campaigns," October 31, 2012
  13. Illinois Courts, "Illinois Supreme Court Rules," accessed March 21, 2014
  14. Illinois Courts, "Illinois Supreme Court Building Information," accessed March 21, 2014
  15. Center for Public Integrity, "State supreme court judges reveal scant financial information," December 5, 2013
  16. Methods of Selection: Removal of Judges
  17. American Judicature Society: History of Efforts to Reform the Illinois Judiciary
  18. Chicago Tribune, "State high court overrules voters on judge picks," August 26, 2011
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Reuters, "Illinois Supreme Court strikes down," March 21, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 The Chicago Tribune, "Court shuts down sales tax havens," November 28, 2013
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 The Chicago Tribune, "Illinois Supreme Court tosses Department of Revenue's tax-collection rules," November 22, 2013
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Mondaq, "Illinois Local Sales Tax Sourcing Uncertainty Is Over…Replaced By Chaos: Hartney Wins Tax Situs Suit, But Governing Regulations Are Invalidated," November 26 2013
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 The News Tribune, "Hartney Fuel wins high court ruling," November 22, 2013
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 The Supreme Court of Illinois, "Opinion," November 21, 2013
  26. NRA-ILA, "Illinois Supreme Court Declares State's Ban on Carrying Firearms Unconstitutional," January 17, 2014
  27. Illinois Courts, "People v. Aguilar, 2013 IL 112116," September 12, 2013
  28. Supreme Court of Illinois (via ABA Journal), "Hon. William D. Maddux et al. v. Rod R. Blagojevich," June 18, 2009
  29. 29.0 29.1 Chicago Breaking News Center, "State court rebuffs Burris on Senate signature," January 9, 2009, archived November 27, 2010
  30. NPR, "Illinois Sen. Roland Burris Prepares Exit, Has No Regrets," November 1, 2010
  31. Chicago Tribune, "Court denies suit," December 17, 2008
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 32.7 Illinois Courts, "The Third Branch - A Chronicle of the Illinois Supreme Court," accessed March 20, 2014
  33. Illinois Courts, "Mary Ann G. McMorrow," accessed March 21, 2014
  34. Illinois Courts, "Charles E. Freeman," accessed March 21, 2014
  35. The Third Branch - A Chronicle of the Illinois Supreme Court, "Justices of the Illinois Supreme Court," accessed March 21, 2014


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