|Current Court Information:|
|Supreme Court of the United States|
|Title:||Former Chief Justice|
|Appointed by:||John Adams|
|Active:||1/31/1801 - 7/6/1835|
|Preceded by:||Oliver Ellsworth|
|Succeeded by:||Roger Brooke Taney|
|Born:||September 24, 1755|
|Home State:||Prince William County, VA|
|Deceased:||July 6, 1835|
|Law School:||Read law, 1780|
|Military service:|| Culpeper Minute Men, 1775-1776|
Continental Army, 1776-1780
John Marshall (1755-1835) served as the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, from 1801 to 1835. He joined the court in 1801 after a nomination from President John Adams. He served until his death on July 6, 1835. He is best known for establishing constitutional judicial review in Marbury v. Madison.
At the time of his nomination, Marshall was the United States Secretary of State.
Early life and education
Marshall was born in Virginia. During the Revolutionary War, he was a Minuteman lieutenant in Culpepper County for two years, then served in the Eleventh Virginia Regiment as a lieutenant for four years. He earned his law credentials by read law, an independent study program common prior to the creation of law schools.
- 1800-1801: United States Secretary of State
- 1799-1800: U.S. Representative from Virginia
- 1797-1798: Minister to France, U.S. Department of State
- 1780-1797: Attorney, private practice in Virginia
- 1788: Delegate, Virginia convention to ratify the U.S. Constitution
- 1787-1788: State delegate, Virginia
- 1785-1788: Record, Richmond City Hustings Court
- 1784-1785: State delegate, Virginia
- 1782-1784: Member, Virginia Council of State
- 1782: State delegate, Virginia
Marshall gained notoriety as a participant in the much publicized XYZ Affair in which he, along with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Elbridge Gerry, hoped to settle ongoing French-American hostilities. During negotiations, three men acting in France's interest and referred to as X, Y and Z, demanded that the American envoy give the French $250,000 before they would be granted an audience with Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (the French Foreign Minister). They refused, the situation worsened and Marshall returned home.
Supreme Court of the United States
Marshall was nominated by President John Adams on January 20, 1801 to a seat vacated by Oliver Ellsworth. He was confirmed by the Senate on January 27, 1801 and received commission on January 31, 1801. He served until his death on July 6, 1835. He was succeeded in the post of Chief Justice by Roger Brooke Taney.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
*Marbury v. Madison
Marshall's appointment as Supreme Court Chief Justice was one of many of President Adams's midnight appointments, which included the commission of 42 Justices of the Peace. Many of the commissions were never delivered, on account of political sparring between the out-going Adams and the recently sworn-in President Jefferson. The most famous of these rebuked commissions belonged to William Marbury, who, in a twist of irony, would contest his loss in front of Marshall and his recently endowed court. The case would become known as Marbury v. Madison, and it has remained at the forefront of American judicial history ever since.
- Gibbons v. Ogden
- History of the Supreme Court
- Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
- Marbury v. Madison
- McCulloch v. Maryland
|Federal judicial offices|
Roger Brooke Taney
|1801||Basset • Benson • Bourne • Clay • Cranch • Davis • Griffith • Hitchcock • Key • Lowell • Magill • James Markham Marshall • John Marshall • McClung • Paine • Smith • Taylor • Tilghman • Wolcott|
|Former chief justices||White|
|Former associate justices||
Baldwin • Barbour • Black • Blackmun • Blair • Blatchford • Bradley • Brandeis • Brennan • Brewer • Brown • Burton • Butler • Byrnes • Campbell • Cardozo • Catron • Chase • Clark • Clarke • Clifford • Curtis • Cushing • Daniel • Davis • Day • Douglas • Duvall • Field • Fortas • Frankfurter • Goldberg • Gray • Grier • Harlan I • Harlan II • Holmes • Hunt • Iredell • H. Jackson • R. Jackson • T. Johnson • W. Johnson, Jr. • J. Lamar • L. Lamar • Livingston • Lurton • Marshall • Matthews • McKenna • McKinley • McLean • McReynolds • Miller • Minton • Moody • Moore • Murphy • Nelson • Paterson • Peckham • Pitney • Powell • Reed • Roberts • W. Rutledge • Sanford • Shiras • Stewart • Story • Strong • Sutherland • Swayne • Thompson • Todd • Trimble • Van Devanter • Washington • Wayne • B. White • Whittaker • Wilson • Woodbury • Woods