John Marshall

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John Marshall
John Marshall.png
Current Court Information:
Supreme Court of the United States
Title:   Former Chief Justice
Position:   Seat #1
Service:
Appointed by:   John Adams
Active:   1/31/1801 - 7/6/1835
Preceded by:   Oliver Ellsworth
Succeeded by:   Roger Brooke Taney
Personal History
Born:   September 24, 1755
Hometown:   Prince William County, VA
Deceased:   July 6, 1835
Law School:   Read law, 1780
Military service:   Culpeper Minute Men, 1775-1776
Continental Army, 1776-1780



John Marshall (1755-1835) served as the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, from 1801 to 1835. He joined the court in 1801 after a nomination from President John Adams. He served until his death on July 6, 1835.[1] He is best known for establishing constitutional judicial review in Marbury v. Madison.

At the time of his nomination, Marshall was the United States Secretary of State.

Early life and education

Marshall was born in Virginia. During the Revolutionary War, he was a Minuteman lieutenant in Culpepper County for two years, then served in the Eleventh Virginia Regiment as a lieutenant for four years. He earned his law credentials by read law, an independent study program common prior to the creation of law schools.[1]

Professional career

  • 1800-1801: United States Secretary of State
  • 1799-1800: U.S. Representative from Virginia
  • 1797-1798: Minister to France, U.S. Department of State
  • 1780-1797: Attorney, private practice in Virginia
  • 1788: Delegate, Virginia convention to ratify the U.S. Constitution
  • 1787-1788: State delegate, Virginia
  • 1785-1788: Record, Richmond City Hustings Court
  • 1784-1785: State delegate, Virginia
  • 1782-1784: Member, Virginia Council of State
  • 1782: State delegate, Virginia[1]

XYZ Affair

Marshall gained notoriety as a participant in the much publicized XYZ Affair in which he, along with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Elbridge Gerry, hoped to settle ongoing French-American hostilities. During negotiations, three men acting in France's interest and referred to as X, Y and Z, demanded that the American envoy give the French $250,000 before they would be granted an audience with Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (the French Foreign Minister). They refused, the situation worsened and Marshall returned home.[2][3]

Judicial career

Supreme Court of the United States

Marshall was nominated by President John Adams on January 20, 1801 to a seat vacated by Oliver Ellsworth. He was confirmed by the Senate on January 27, 1801 and received commission on January 31, 1801. He served until his death on July 6, 1835.[1] He was succeeded in the post of Chief Justice by Roger Brooke Taney.

Notable cases

Details
Author: John Marshall

Vote Count: 4-0

Majority Justices: William Paterson, Samuel Chase, and Bushrod Washington


Details
Author: John Marshall

Vote Count: 5-0

Majority Justices: William Johnson, Jr., Bushrod Washington, Henry Brockholst Livingston, Thomas Todd


Details
Author: John Marshall

Vote Count: 7-0

Majority Justices: Bushrod Washington, William Johnson, Jr., Henry Brockholst Livingston, Thomas Todd, Gabriel Duvall


Details
Author: John Marshall

Vote Count: 7-0

Majority Justices: Bushrod Washington, William Johnson, Jr., Henry Brockholst Livingston, Thomas Todd, Gabriel Duvall


See also

External links

References

Federal judicial offices
Preceded by:
Oliver Ellsworth
Supreme Court
1801–1835
Seat #1
Succeeded by:
Roger Brooke Taney