Texas Municipal Courts
The Texas Constitution gives authority to the Legislature to create “such other courts as may be provided by law.” Under this authority the Texas Legislature "has created municipal courts in each incorporated municipality in the State. In lieu of a municipal court created by the Legislature, municipalities may choose to establish municipal courts of record. There were 915 municipal courts operating in Texas as of September 1, 2010.
Chapters 29 and 30 of the Texas Government Code establish the jurisdiction of municipal courts. The Texas Office of Court Administration explains: "Municipal courts have original and exclusive jurisdiction over criminal violations of certain municipal ordinances and airport board rules, orders, or resolutions that do not exceed $2,500 in some instances and $500 in others. Municipal courts also have concurrent jurisdiction with the justice courts in certain misdemeanor criminal cases.
In addition to the jurisdiction of a regular municipal court, municipal courts of record also have jurisdiction over criminal cases arising under ordinances authorized by certain provisions of the Texas Local Government Code. The municipality may also provide by ordinance that a municipal court of record have additional jurisdiction in certain civil and criminal matters."
Municipal court judges are either appointed or elected in accordance with the rules laid out by each municipality's charter or ordinances.
Qualifications for municipal court judges are set by the "governing body of the city."
List of Texas municipal courts
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