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Charles Evans Hughes

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Charles Evans Hughes
CharlesEHughes.jpg
Current Court Information:
Supreme Court of the United States
Title:   Former Chief Justice
Position:   Seat #1
Service:
Appointed by:   Herbert Hoover
Active:   2/13/1930-6/30/1941
Senior:   6/30/1941-8/27/1948
Preceded by:   William H. Taft
Succeeded by:   Harlan Fiske Stone
Past post:   Supreme Court, Associate Justice
Past term:   5/2/1910-6/10/1916
Personal History
Born:   April 11, 1862
Hometown:   Glens Falls, NY
Deceased:   August 27, 1948
Undergraduate:   Brown, 1881
Law School:   Read law, 1882,
Columbia Law, LL.B., 1884

Charles Hughes was the eleventh Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He joined the Supreme Court as an Associate Justice in 1910 after a nomination from President William H. Taft. Hughes then resigned from the court in 1916 to return to private practice. He went on to succeed Taft as Chief Justice after a 1930 nomination from President Herbert Hoover. On June 30, 1941, Hughes assumed senior status. He served in this capacity until his death on August 27, 1948.[1]

Hughes had an illustrious political career before joining the court. He served as Governor of New York, was the 1916 Republican candidate for President of the United States and served as United States Secretary of State.

Education

Hughes received his undergraduate degree from Brown University in 1881 and a LL.B. from Columbia Law School in 1884.[1]

Professional career

  • 1926-1930: Member, Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague
  • 1925-1930: Attorney, private practice
  • 1921-1925: United States Secretary of State
  • 1916-1921: Attorney, private practice
  • 1916: Republican candidate for President of the United States
Lost to Woodrow Wilson, receiving 46.12% of the vote[2]
  • 1907-1910: Governor of New York
  • 1906: Special Assistant to United States Attorney General
  • 1905-1906: Counsel, Armstrong Insurance Commission, New York Legislature
  • 1905: Counsel, Stevens Gas Commission, New York Legislature
  • 1893-1900: Special lecturer, New York University Law School
  • 1893-1895: Special lecturer, Cornell Law School
  • 1893-1906: Attorney, private practice
  • 1891-1893: Professor of law, Cornell Law School
  • 1884-1891: Attorney, private practice[1]

Judicial career

Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Hughes was nominated to the Supreme Court of the United States by President Herbert Hoover on February 3, 1930, to fill a seat vacated by William Howard Taft. He was confirmed by the Senate on February 13, 1930, and received commission that same day. On June 30, 1941, Hughes assumed senior status. He served in this capacity until his death on August 27, 1948.[1] He was succeeded in the post of Chief Justice by Harlan Fiske Stone.

Associate Justice

Hughes was previously an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court. He was nominated by President William Howard Taft on April 25, 1910, to fill a seat vacated by Justice David Josiah Brewer. He was confirmed by the Senate on May 2, 1910, and received commission that same day. He resigned on June 10, 1916, to return to private practice.[1] He was succeeded to this post by John Hessin Clarke.

Notable cases

Details
Author: Charles E. Hughes

Vote Count: 5-4

Majority Justices: Brandeis, Stone, Roberts, Cardozo

Minority Justices: Sutherland, Van Devanter, McReynolds, Butler

Minimum wage is constitutional (1937)

A 1932 Washington State Law, "Minimum Wages for Women," was established to protect women and children from working conditions that had "pernicious effects on their health and morals." The state determined a suitable wage at $14.50 for a 48 hour work week. The 5-4 decision resulted in the Court determining that minimum wage for women was constitutional. Because negotiations between employers and employees often favored employers' negotiating abilities due to economy and other issues, the Court felt that women were especially at a disadvantage. This landmark decision overturned Lochner v. New York and began the New Deal era for the United States.[3]
Details
Author: Charles E. Hughes

Vote Count: 5-4

Majority Justices: Brandeis, Stone, Roberts, Cardozo

Minority Justices: Van Devanter, McReynolds, Sutherland, Butler

National Labor Rights Act is constitutional (1937)

Because Congress decided that labor disputes were an issue of interstate commerce with the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, Congress determined it had the power to regulate these disputes. As a result, Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. was charged by the National Labor Relations board for discriminating against union laborers. To determine if the Act was in line with the Commerce Clause, the Supreme Court was asked to hear the case. On April 12, 1937, the Court decided that the dispute did fall under the Commerce Clause. Part of the Act called for the workers' ability to bargain, which the Court saw as a necessary function in maintaining interstate commerce.[4]
Details
Author: Charles E. Hughes

Vote Count: 9-0

Majority Justices: Van Devanter, McReynolds, Brandeis, Sutherland, Butler, Stone, Roberts, Cordoza

Section 3 of the National Industrial Recovery Act is unconstitutional (1935)

Under Section 3 of the National Industrial Recovery Act, the president could control wages, weekly employment hours and the age of employees in the form of penal codes. The question brought before the Supreme Court was whether this power should actually be legislative power. In a unanimous decision on May 27, 1935, the Court determined that it did, in fact, violate the Constitution and that this was not an acceptable delegation of legislative power.[5]

See also

External links

References

Federal judicial offices
Preceded by:
David Josiah Brewer
Supreme Court, Associate Justice
1910–1916
Succeeded by:
John Hessin Clarke
Preceded by:
William Howard Taft
Supreme Court
1930–1941
Seat #1
Succeeded by:
Harlan Fiske Stone