Harlan Fiske Stone

From Judgepedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Harlan Fiske Stone
HarlanFiske.jpg
Current Court Information:
Supreme Court of the United States
Title:   Former Chief Justice
Position:   Seat #1
Service:
Appointed by:   Franklin D. Roosevelt
Active:   7/3/1941-4/22/1946
Preceded by:   Charles Evans Hughes
Succeeded by:   Frederick Vinson
Past post:   Supreme Court, Associate Justice
Past term:   2/5/1925-7/3/1941
Personal History
Born:   October 11, 1872
Hometown:   Chesterfield, NH
Deceased:   April 22, 1946
Undergraduate:   Amherst College, 1894
Law School:   Columbia Law, 1898
Grad. School:   Amherst College, 1897

Harlan Fiske Stone (1872-1946) was the twelfth Chief Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. He served on the court from 1925 to 1946. Stone was nominated to the court in 1925 as an Associate Justice by President Calvin Coolidge. He was elevated to the position of Chief Justice in 1941 following a nomination by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He served until his death on April 22, 1946.[1]

Stone was the only justice nominated to the Supreme Court by President Coolidge. Before becoming Chief Justice, Stone served during The Taft Court and The Hughes Court.

Early life and education

Stone received his undergraduate and Master's degrees from Amherst College in 1894 and 1897, respectively. He earned his LL.B. from Columbia Law School in 1898.[1]

Professional career

  • 1924: United States Attorney General
  • 1910-1923: Dean, Columbia Law School
  • 1906: Professor and Dean, Columbia Law School
  • 1905-1910: Attorney, private practice in New York City
  • 1898-1899: Clerk, private law firms
  • 1898-1905: Faculty, Columbia Law School[1]

Judicial career

Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Stone was nominated by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on June 12, 1941, to replace Charles Evans Hughes. He was confirmed by the Senate on June 27th and received commission on July 3, 1941. He served until his death on April 22, 1946.[1] Stone was succeeded in the post of Chief Justice by Frederick Vinson.

Associate Justice

Before he was elevated to the position of Chief Justice, Stone served for nearly sixteen years as a Supreme Court Associate Justice. He was nominated by President Calvin Coolidge on January 5, 1925, to replace Justice Joseph McKenna. He was confirmed by the Senate on February 5, 1925, and received commission that same day.[1] Sutherland was succeeded in this post by Justice Robert Jackson.

In 1925, Stone was the first Supreme Court nominee to testify at a Supreme Court confirmation hearing.[2]

Notable case

Details
Author: Harlan Fiske Stone

Vote Count: 6-3

Majority Justices: Black, Reed, Frankfurter, Douglas, Rutledge

Dissenting Justices: Roberts, Murphy, Jackson

Exclusion is acceptable in emergency cases (1944)

With Executive Order 9066 and congressional statutes passed during World War II, citizens of Japanese ancestry were forbidden from areas that were important to national defense or vulnerable to espionage. By staying in San Leandro, California, Korematsu violated this order. Korematsu asked the court to determine the constitutionality of this. On December 18, 1944, the Court found in favor of the United States, saying that the security of the United States outweighed the rights of Mr. Korematsu. Justice Hugo Black argued that in certain cases, exclusion was acceptable in "emergency and peril."[3]

See also

External links

References

Federal judicial offices
Preceded by:
Joseph McKenna
Supreme Court
1925–1941
Succeeded by:
Robert Jackson
Preceded by:
Charles Evans Hughes
Supreme Court
1941–1946
Seat #1
Succeeded by:
Frederick Vinson