Read law or Reading the law is the method by which persons in common law countries, particularly the United States, entered the legal profession prior to the advent of law schools. This usage specifically refers to a means of entering the profession (although in England it is still customary to say that a university undergraduate is "reading" a course, which may be law or any other). A small number of U.S. jurisdictions still permit this practice today.
In colonial America, as in Britain in that day, law schools did not exist. Within a few years following the American Revolution, some universities such as the College of William and Mary and the University of Pennsylvania established a "Chair in Law". However, the holder of this position would be the sole purveyor of legal education for the institution, and would give lectures designed to supplement, rather than replace, an apprenticeship. Law schools would remain uncommon in the United States until the late nineteenth century, and most people entered the legal profession through an apprenticeship which incorporated a period of study under the supervision of an experienced attorney. This usually encompassed the reading of the works considered at the time to be the most authoritative on the law, such as Edward Coke's Institutes of the Lawes of England, William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, and similar texts.
The scholastic independence of the law student is evident from the following advice of Abraham Lincoln to a young man in 1855:
If you are absolutely determined to make a lawyer of yourself the thing is more than half done already. It is a small matter whether you read with any one or not. I did not read with any one. Get the books and read and study them in their every feature, and that is the main thing. It is no consequence to be in a large town while you are reading. I read at New Salem, which never had three hundred people in it. The books and your capacity for understanding them are just the same in all places. [...] Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any other one thing.
Reading law to become an attorney would be the norm, until the 1890s, when the American Bar Association (which had been formed in 1878) began pressing states to limit admission to the Bar to those who had satisfactorily completed several years of post-graduate institutional instruction. In 1941, James Byrnes became the last Justice appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States who had been admitted to practice by reading law.
A small number of jurisdictions still permit this practice. In California, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington, an applicant who has not attended law school may take the bar exam after reading law under a judge or practicing attorney for an extended period of time. The State of New York requires that applicants who are reading law must have at least one year of law school study. (See Rule 520.4 of the Rules of the Court of Appeals for the Admission of Attorneys.) Such persons are sometimes called country lawyers or county-seat lawyers.
- ↑ Harno, 23.
- ↑ Harno, 27.
- ↑ Albert J. Harno, Legal Education in the United States: A Report Prepared for the Survey of the Legal Profession (1953), p. 19-20.
- ↑ Frederick James Allen, The Law as a Vocation (1919), p. 25.
- ↑ Harno, 86-87.
- ↑ "Rule 6 Law Clerk Program". Washington State Bar Association. 2002. http://www.wsba.org/lawyers/licensing/faq-rule6.htm. Retrieved on March 04.
This page was taken from Wikipedia on April 15, 2009.