United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
- 1 Vacancy warning level
- 2 Active judges
- 3 Jurisdiction
- 4 Caseloads
- 5 Notable cases
- 6 History
- 7 Former judges
- 8 Location
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
- 11 References
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, sometimes referred to simply as the Second Circuit, is one of the thirteen federal appellate courts. The court was established in 1891 and has a total of thirteen posts. The court is located at the Thurgood Marshall Federal Courthouse in New York, New York.
Vacancy warning level
There are no current pending appointments for the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Article III judges
|Judge Christopher Droney||1954||Hartford, CT||Obama||11/28/2011-Present||Guido Calabresi||College of the Holy Cross, B.A., 1976||U. of Connecticut Law, J.D., 1979|
|Judge Denny Chin||1954||Kowloon, Hong Kong||Obama||04/23/2010 - Current||Robert Sack||Princeton, 1975||Fordham U. Law, 1978|
|Judge Gerard Lynch||1951||Brooklyn, NY||Obama||9/17/2009 - Present||Chester Straub||Columbia, B.A., 1972||Columbia Law, J.D., 1975|
|Judge Dennis Jacobs||1944||New York, NY||H.W. Bush||10/2/1992 - Present||10/1/2006 - 08/31/2013||Wilfred Feinberg||Queens College CUNY, B.A., 1964||New York U., J.D., 1973|
|Judge Jose Cabranes||1940||Mayagüez, PR||Clinton||8/10/1994 - Present||Richard Cardamone||Columbia, A.B., 1961||Yale Law, J.D., 1965|
|Judge Rosemary Pooler||1938||New York, NY||Clinton||6/3/1998 - Present||Frank Altimari||Brooklyn College, B.A., 1959||U. of Michigan Law, J.D., 1965|
|Chief Judge Robert Katzmann||1944||New York, NY||Clinton||7/16/1999 - Present||09/01/2013 - Present||Jon Newman||Columbia, A.B., 1973||Yale Law, J.D., 1980|
|Judge Reena Raggi||1951||Jersey City, NJ||W. Bush||10/4/2002 - Present||Amalya Kearse||Wellesley College '73||Harvard Law '76|
|Judge Richard Wesley||1949||Canandaigua, NY||W. Bush||6/12/2003 - Present||Pierre Leval||SUNY Albany, B.A., 1971||Cornell Law, J.D., 1974|
|Judge Peter Hall||1948||Hartford, CT||W. Bush||7/7/2004 - Present||Fred Parker||U. of North Carolina, B.A., 1971||Cornell Law, J.D., 1977|
|Judge Debra Livingston||1959||Waycross, GA||W. Bush||5/17/2007 - Present||John Walker||Princeton, B.A., 1980||Harvard Law, J.D., 1984|
|Judge Raymond Lohier||1965||Montreal, Canada||Obama||12/19/2010 - Present||Sonia Sotomayor||Harvard, A.B., 1988||New York U., J.D., 1991|
|Judge Susan L. Carney||1951||Waltham, MA||Obama||5/17/2011 - Present||Barrington Parker||Harvard, A.B., 1973||Harvard Law, J.D., 1977|
|Senior Judge Pierre Leval||Clinton||10/20/1993 - 8/16/2002||8/16/2002 - Present||Harvard, A.B., 1959||Harvard Law, J.D., 1963|
|Senior Judge Wilfred Feinberg||L.B. Johnson||3/7/1966 - 1/31/1991||1980-1988||1/31/1991 - Present||Columbia, B.A., 1940||Columbia Law, LL.B., 1946|
|Senior Judge Jon Newman||Carter||6/21/1979 - 7/1/1997||1993-1997||7/1/1997 - Present||Princeton, A.B., 1953||Yale Law, LL.B., 1956|
|Senior Judge Amalya Kearse||Carter||6/21/1979 - 6/11/2002||6/11/2002 - Present||Wellesley College, B.A., 1959||U. of Michigan Law, J.D., 1962|
|Senior Judge Ralph Winter||Reagan||12/10/1981 - 9/30/2000||1997-2000||9/30/2000 - Present||Yale, B.A., 1957||Yale Law, LL.B., 1960|
|Senior Judge John Walker||H.W. Bush||11/27/1989 - 10/1/2006||2001-2006||10/1/2006 - Present||Yale, B.A., 1962||U. Michigan Law, J.D., 1966|
|Senior Judge Chester Straub||Clinton||6/3/1998 - 7/16/2008||7/16/2008 - Present||St. Peter's College, B.A., 1958||U. of Virginia Law, LL.B., 1961|
|Senior Judge Guido Calabresi||Clinton||7/18/1994 - 7/21/2009||7/21/2009 - Present||Yale, B.S., 1953|
Oxford, B.A., 1955
|Yale Law, LL.B., 1958|
|Senior Judge Robert Sack||Clinton||6/16/1998 - 8/6/2009||8/6/2009 - Present||U. of Rochester, B.A., 1960||Columbia Law, LL.B., 1963|
|Senior Judge Barrington Parker||W. Bush||10/16/2001 - 10/10/2009||10/10/2009 - Present||Yale, B.A., 1965||Yale Law, LL.B., 1969|
|Senior Judge Richard Cardamone||Reagan||10/29/1981- 11/13/1993||11/13/1993 - Present||Harvard, B.A., 1948||Syracuse U. Law, LL.B., 1952|
The Second Circuit has appellate jurisdiction over cases heard in one of its subsidiary districts. These cases can include civil and criminal matters that fall under federal law. Appeals of rulings by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals are petitioned to the Supreme Court of the United States. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg is the Circuit Justice for the Second Circuit.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit's territory comprises the states of Connecticut, New York, and Vermont. The court has appellate jurisdiction over the United States district courts in the following federal judicial districts:
- District of Connecticut
- Eastern District of New York
- Northern District of New York
- Southern District of New York
- Western District of New York
- District of Vermont
|Federal Court Case Load Statistics*|
|Year||Starting case load:||Cases filed:||Total cases:||Cases terminated:||Remaining cases||Terminations on merits:||Terminations on Procedure||Cross Appeals:||Total Terminations:||Written decisions per Judge**|
|*All statistics are taken from the Official Federal Courts' Website (for District Courts) and reflect the calendar year through September. **This statistic reflects only judges that are active for the entire 12 month period.|
For a search-able list of decisions from the Second Circuit, please see: Second Circuit Searchable Opinions
| • Apple's challenge to e-book antitrust monitor (2014) Judge(s):Gerard Lynch, Pierre Leval, and Guido Calabresi|
*U.S. v. Apple, Inc. 1:12-cv-02826-DLC
|On January 21, 2014, Judge Raymond Joseph Lohier, Jr. granted a temporary stay as to the work performed by Michael Bromwich, the court-appointed monitor in the Apple e-book antitrust case. The stay was to remain in effect until a three-judge panel of the Second Circuit was available to decide whether Bromwich should be removed as monitor. In the underlying case, Judge Denise Cote found in July 2013 that Apple conspired with online publishers to fix the prices of e-books. She appointed Bromwich to oversee and monitor the company’s compliance with federal antitrust laws in October 2013. In an earlier motion filed by Apple, the company claimed that Cote’s appointment of a monitor in a civil antitrust case was unprecedented. Attorneys for Apple contested Bromwich’s hourly fee of $1,100, alleging that because of the “extremely broad powers” Cote conferred upon him, he was able to overreach in his investigations such that they bordered on interfering with the company’s daily operations. Cote denied Apple’s request to remove Bromwich as monitor just days before Lohier issued the temporary stay. In his ruling, Lohier noted that Apple’s request for Bromwich’s permanent ouster would be heard “as soon as possible” by an appellate panel. Lohier's order is available here.
On February 10, 2014, a three-judge panel of the Second Circuit composed of Judge Gerard Lynch and Senior Judges Pierre Leval and Guido Calabresi rejected Judge Lohier's stay and restored Michael Bromwich's ability to perform his duties as Apple's e-book antitrust monitor, with the understanding that Apple may pursue a further appeal to remove Bromwich from his position. In the order, the judicial panel noted that according to the government, Judge Cote's initial order was to be "interpreted narrowly." As a result, Lynch, Leval, and Calabresi agreed that as antitrust monitor, Bromwich was only to "assess the appropriateness of the compliance programs adopted by Apple and the means used to communicate those those programs to its personnel." The Second Circuit panel went on to limit Bromwich's authority, empowering him to "demand only documents relevant to his authorized responsibility . . . and to interview Apple directors, officers and employees only on subjects relevant to that responsibility."
| • ADA's speech disruptive enough to uphold his firing (2013)|
*Sacha v. Sedita 12-4507-cv
|On November 23, 2013, a three-judge panel of the Second Circuit, consisting of Chief Judge Robert Katzmann, Judge Rosemary Pooler, and Senior Judge Pierre Leval, upheld the dismissal of Mark Sacha’s lawsuit against Erie County District Attorney Frank Sedita III. In the underlying case, Sedita fired Sacha from his position as Assistant District Attorney following Sacha's public contention that Sedita failed to prosecute G. Steven Pigeon on allegations of election law violations (specifically, the alleged laundering of a $10,000 campaign contribution). Sacha claimed he was fired in retaliation for his criticism of Sedita and filed suit in December 2009, alleging that his First Amendment rights had been violated. Sedita filed a motion for summary judgment, and Chief Judge William Skretny of the United States District Court for the Western District of New York granted it in October 2012, citing the fact that his statements to the press were made in his capacity as an ADA, not as a private citizen, and thus his free speech rights had not been violated. That decision is available here. Sacha appealed Skretny's ruling to the Second Circuit, where the three-judge panel affirmed Skretny's ruling, but on alternate grounds, noting that "Sacha’s speech was sufficiently disruptive to justify terminating his employment as an assistant district attorney." Sacha vowed to file a further appeal, claiming that the Second Circuit's three-judge panel had a conflict of interest in hearing the case.|
| • District Court "stop-and-frisk" ruling remains intact (2013) Judge(s):John Walker, Jose Cabranes and Barrington Parker|
*[Part 1, Part 2 Floyd v. City of New York]
|On October 31, 2013, a three-judge panel of the Second Circuit, composed of Judge Jose Cabranes and Senior Judges John Walker and Barrington Parker, removed Judge Shira Scheindlin from Floyd v. City of New York and put the remedies proposed by the judge on hold. The previous court order was stayed until an appeal was heard by the panel.
Scheindlin was removed from the case as a result of interviews with the media in May 2013 which made the court question her impartiality. In response to the accusation that she violated the Code of Conduct for federal judges, Scheindlin said:
This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
On November 22, 2013, the judicial panel refused in a per curiam decision to vacate Judge Scheindlin's prior ruling which struck down the NYPD's stop-and-frisk policy. The judges denied motions filed by New York City to transfer the court's October 2013 stay of Scheindlin's ruling into its vacation, and further denied as moot motions filed by Scheindlin in opposition to the City's previously described motions. Judge Scheindlin's groundbreaking "stop-and-frisk" decision still stands.
BackgroundIn August 2013, Scheindlin ruled that the New York Police Department's (NYPD) "stop-and-frisk" rule, which the NYPD credited with saving lives, disregarded the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments. Scheindlin also found that officers used racial profiling during the process, unfairly targeting minorities.
| • VT prison labor case (2012) Judge(s):Barrington Parker, Richard Wesley and Robert Katzman|
|On August 3, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit overturned the lower court decision and held that a suit could continue which alleged that the Chittenden Regional Correctional Facility in South Burlington, Vermont violated the 13th amendment by requiring an individual to work in the laundry room for $0.25 an hour. The suit was filed by Finbar McGarry who alleged that during his time pending trial in the facility, he was forced to work 14-hour shifts, three days a week, and was punished with solitary confinement if he refused. He filed the suit a month before his release, requesting $11 million in damages. U.S. District Judge Garvan Murtha threw out the case claiming that McGarry did not prove that the forced work was akin to African American slavery, which the act was originally designed to protect against. The three-judge appeals court panel, composed of Robert Katzmann, Richard Wesley, and the writing judge Barrington Parker, disagreed, writing in their opinion, "The Amendment was intended to prohibit all forms of involuntary labor, not solely to abolish chattel slavery." In addition the court held that McGarry's pretrial status required that the state treat him differently as he was not yet convicted and the charges were later dropped. The case was remanded back to Judge Murtha for further evaluation.|
| • NY City smoking deterrent posters (2012) Judge(s):Peter Hall, Gerard Lynch and Denny Chin|
*94th St. Grocery v. N.Y.C. Bd. of Health 11-91-cv
|On July 10, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed the decision of Judge Jed Rakoff, ruling that federal regulations preempted a city ordinance that required cigarette distributors to post gruesome photos of cigarette-related illnesses at the point of sale. The court held that the 1965 Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act preempted the local law, thus rendering the local ordinance unconstitutional. Philip Morris USA alongside two other manufacturers, two major retailers, and two trade unions challenged this city law in federal court in 2011. Despite admitting the risks of smoking, Rakoff agreed with the cigarette producers, stating in his opinion, "Even merchants of morbidity are entitled to the full protection of the law." The Second Circuit concurred, though a three-judge panel believed that the city could launch its own anti-smoking campaign using the images, but could not require retailers to do it. The case was heard by Judges Peter Hall, Gerard Lynch, and Denny Chin, with Chin writing the opinion of the court.|
| • Town meeting prayer case (2012) Judge(s):Guido Calabresi, Richard Wesley, Gerard Lynch|
*Galloway and Stephens v. Town of Greece, et al 10-3635-cv
|The Second Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the 100,000-resident town of Greece, NY, violated a constitutional ban against favoring one religion over another, in what was deemed a significant test to the constitutionally mandated separation of church and state. The decision, issued on the May 17, 2012, stated that by opening nearly every monthly town meeting with Christian-centric prayers, the town was favoring Christianity over other religions.
The meetings in question took place every month between 1999 and 2007, and from January 2009 to June 2010 in the suburb of Rochester, New York. Who was to deliver the invocation was decided each month by a town employee who chose clerics or laypeople from a local published guide of churches that did not include any places of worship outside of the Christian denomination. After complaints from two town residents, four of the 12 meetings in 2008 were opened by invocations from other faiths.
The suit first brought in 2010, was originally decided in favor of the city of Greece. The lower court ruled that there was no indication that one faith was favored over another, or that the town purposely excluded other faiths. The decision was overturned by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, ruling that "the town's process for selecting prayer-givers virtually ensured a Christian viewpoint.”The case was appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 2013.
| • Citigroup liability case (2011) Judge(s):John Walker, Jose Cabranes and Chester Straub|
*In re Citigroup ERISA Litigation 662 F. 3d 128
|Judge John Walker authored the Second Circuit Court's opinion in a ruling declaring that Citigroup was not liable to workers who lost money on their 401(k) plans due to the company's exposure to toxic debt. The court split 2-1 in the decision, with Judge Jose Cabranes agreeing with Judge Walker and Judge Chester Straub dissenting. The case was brought under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 by workers who claimed that Citigroup should not have offered bank stock in its retirement plans because it knew its subprime mortgage exposure made the stock a dangerous investment. The court disagreed, and Judge Walker wrote that the workers did not show that Citigroup "either knew or should have known that Citigroup was in the sort of dire situation that required them to override plan terms in order to limit participants' investments in Citigroup stock." Marc Machiz, a lawyer for the plaintiffs, said he expected the case to be reheard by the full Second Circuit Court.|
| • Hiram Monserrate case (2010) Judge(s):Gerard Lynch, Dennis Jacobs, and Jane Restani|
*Monserrate v. New York State Senate 599 F. 3d 148
|District Judge William Pauley denied a request by former New York State Senator Hiram Monserrate to stop a decision made by the New York Senate to expel him on February 9, 2010.
Monserrate was expelled after being convicted of domestic violence towards his girlfriend which is considered a misdemeanor.The case was appealed to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, but the appellate court judges, Gerard Lynch, Dennis Jacobs, and Jane Restani, ruled that the district court "did not abuse its discretion in determining that the Monserrate Appellants failed to establish a likelihood of success on the merits of any of the claims they press on appeal. We thus need not reach any of the other arguments advanced by the parties. For the foregoing reasons, we affirm the district court's denial of the preliminary injunction."
| • Fed Reserve disclosure (2009) Judge(s):Dennis Jacobs, Pierre Leval, and Peter Hall|
*BLOOMBERG, LP v. BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF FED. RESERVE 601 F. 3d 143
Bloomberg News took court action after the nation's central bank refused to comply with a Freedom of Information Act request. According to the network, Bloomberg News hoped that if it made public the recipients of bailout money, it would deter more bailout money from being handed out.
As part of her order, Preska gave the Federal Reserve five days to hand over the documents. On August 28, 2009, Preska delayed her order requiring the Federal Reserve to disclose bailout recipients. Preska also allowed the Fed to file an appeal with the Second Circuit Court of Appeals.The case was subsequently argued in front of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals on January 11, 2010, and decided on March 19, 2010. The appellate court judges, Dennis Jacobs, Pierre Leval, and Peter Hall, upheld the decision reached by Judge Preska.
| • Seinfeld case (2009) Judge(s):Reena Raggi and Peter Hall|
*LAPINE v. Seinfeld No. 09-4423-cv
|District Judge Laura Swain tossed out a copyright infringement lawsuit against Jessica Seinfeld on September 10, 2009, after the judge found that a recipe in a cook book did not infringe on a competing author.
Missy Chase Lapine sued the wife of comedian Jerry Seinfeld claiming a chicken breast recipe infringed on her similar recipe and competed unfairly. The judge found that because the styles of the books differed there was no evidence that Seinfeld's wife committed plagiarism. The judgement can be read here.New York Supreme Court dismissed the claim as being without merit in 2011. The judgement can be read here.
| • Ricci v. DeStefano (2008) Judge(s):Sonia Sotomayor|
*[ Ricci v. DeStefano] 530 F.3d 87 (2008)
|In what is considered to be the judge's most high-profile case, Sotomayor joined a finding in favor of the city of New Haven rejecting a lawsuit filed by 17 white firefighters and one Hispanic firefighter claiming race discrimination when the city of New Haven denied promotions following a promotion examination that yielded no black candidates eligible for advancement. In a 5-4 decision, the Supreme Court of the United States overturned the decision stating the decision to cancel the promotions violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment as well as Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act which guarantees equal employment opportunity. The Court found that Sotomayor's ruling would allow the city to "experiment" with tests until it found one that produced "a more desirable racial distribution."|
| • Riverkeeper Inc. v. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Judge(s):Sonia Sotomayor|
*[ Riverkeeper Inc. v. United States Environmental Protection Agency] 475 F3d 83 (2007)
|Sotomayor found in favor of environmental group Riverkeeper who challenged an EPA ruling on the Clean Water Act's "best technology" rule involving power plants' need to intake water as weighed against the risk to aquatic life in surrounding waters. In her ruling, she held that "Congress has already specified the relationship between cost and benefits in requiring that the technology designated by EPA be the best available." Sotomayor's decision was overturned by the United States Supreme Court in a 6-3 vote where the Court held that the EPA could not weigh the costs of changes to power plants versus the value of organisms in dollar terms, but could consider only what costs "may reasonably be borne" by power plants when determining the best technology rule available.|
| • Center for Reproductive Law and Policy v. Bush (2002) Judge(s):Sonia Sotomayor|
*[ Center for Reproductive Law and Policy v. Bush] 304 F3d 183 (2002)
|In a case involving the conservative Mexico City Policy, announced by Ronald Reagan in 1984 and subsequently rescinded by President Bill Clinton and reauthorized by President George W. Bush, Sotomayor found that the federal government was within its rights to deny federal aid to foreign organizations that support or perform abortions. She dismissed claims by the pro-choice Center for Reproductive Law and Policy that the Mexico City Policy violated the First Amendment right to association as well as Fifth Amendment rights to due process and equal protection. In her finding, Sotomayor cited the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which authorizes the President "to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for voluntary population planning" as well as multiple Supreme Court precedents. In her decision, Sotomayor wrote, "the Supreme Court has made clear that the government is free to favor the anti-abortion position over the pro-choice position, and can do so with public funds."|
| • Malesko v. Correctional Services Corporation (2000) Judge(s):Sonia Sotomayor|
*[ Malesko v. Correctional Services Corporation] 229 F3d 374 (2000)
|In this case, Sotomayor found that an inmate living in a halfway house could sue a government contractor for forcing him to climb five flights of stairs despite a heart condition after the inmate suffered a heart attack, fell down the stairs, and injured himself. Sotomayor held "extending Bivens liability to reach private corporations furthers [its] overriding purpose: providing redress for violations of constitutional rights." Bivens was a 1971 Supreme Court case that allowed some people whose rights had been violated by federal agents to sue. The Supreme Court overturned Sotomayor's decision in a 5-4 ruling stating that only individual agents, not corporations, could be sued for such violations.|
The Second Circuit was established by the United States Congress in 1891 through the Evarts Act of 1891, which established the first nine appeals circuits. Over the years, ten additional seats were added to the court resulting in a total of thirteen seats.
The following table highlights the development of judicial posts for the Second Circuit:
|March 3, 1891||26 Stat. 826||3|
|April 17, 1902||32 Stat. 106||4|
|December 12, 1910||36 Stat. 539||5 (1 temporary, at-large post established under the Commerce Court)|
|January 1, 1916||Temporary post expired||4|
|January 17, 1929||45 Stat. 1081||5|
|July 1, 1929||36 Stat. 539||6 (1 temporary, at-large post established under the Commerce Court)|
|May 31, 1938||52 Stat. 584||7 (1 temporary, at-large post established under the Commerce Court)|
|September 6, 1940||Temporary post expired||6|
|May 19, 1961||75 Stat. 80||9|
|October 20, 1978||92 Stat. 1629||11|
|July 10, 1984||98 Stat. 333||13|
Former Chief Judges
In order to qualify for the office of Chief Judge in one of the federal courts, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as Chief Judge. A vacancy in the office of Chief Judge is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The Chief Judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position. Unlike the Chief Justice of the United States, a Chief Judge returns to active service after the expiration of his or her term and does not create a vacancy on the bench by the fact of his or her promotion.
For information on the former judges of the Second Circuit, see former federal judges of the Second Circuit.
The Second Circuit ordinarily has its clerk's office and hears oral arguments at the Thurgood Marshall U.S. Courthouse in Foley Square in Lower Manhattan. Foley square was originally part of the dangerous New York neighborhood known as the Five Points. Architect Cass Gilbert, whose later work included the U.S. Chamber of Commerce (1925) and the U.S. Supreme Court Building (1935), was commissioned in 1931 to design the new federal courthouse on Foley Square. Construction began in 1932, and was not completed for over three years. The building was one of the first federal skyscrapers. Prominent features of the courthouse include its 30-story tower, ten Corinthian columns, and a monumental staircase. The building was given the honor of being added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. Due to renovations at that building, during the summer of 2006, the court temporarily relocated to the Daniel Patrick Moynihan U.S. Courthouse in New York City across Pearl Street from the Marshall Courthouse. Some of the Court's offices, including the Office of Legal Affairs, moved to the Woolworth Building for the duration of the renovations, which were expected to take several years. After six years, in January 2013, the court returned to the Thurgood Marshall U.S. Courthouse.
- News: Second Circuit gives go ahead for 13th Amendment Vermont prison lawsuit, August 14, 2012
- United States court of appeals
- Website of the Second Circuit
- Judges of the Second Circuit
- Opinions of the Second Circuit
- Courthouse News Service, "Union workers were unfairly targeted in CT," June 7, 2013
- New York Times, "Apple Wins Temporary Stay on Court Monitor," January 21, 2014
- New York Times, "Secretive Apple Squirms in Gaze of U.S. Monitor," January 13, 2014
- Star Tribune, "Federal appeals panel in NY restores Apple monitor but spells out limits to his authority," February 10, 2014
- Reuters, "Apple loses latest bid to block e-books antitrust monitor," February 10, 2014
- New York Times, "Court Rejects Apple Appeal in E-Book Case," February 10, 2014
- Buffalo News, "Sedita, in firing Sacha, discloses Pigeon 'immunity,'" October 6, 2009
- Buffalo News, "Federal appeals court upholds dismissal of Sacha suit," November 29, 2013
- Center for Constitutional Rights, "Second Circuit Decision in Floyd v. City of New York FAQ," accessed January 25, 2014
- New York Daily News, "Stop-and-frisk judge removed from case, reforms put on hold after federal appeals court ruling," October 31, 2013
- Courthouse News Service, "Boot to Stop-and-Frisk Judge Won't Kill Rulings," November 22, 2013
- New York Times, "Judge Rejects New York's Stop-and-Frisk Policy," August 12, 2013
- National Journal, "Why 'Stop and Frisk' Was Ruled Unconstitutional," August 12, 2013
- Nation Sun Journal, "Federal court strikes down New York's stop-and-frisk policy," August 12, 2013
- Reuters, "Appeals court reinstates Vermont prison forced labor case," August 3, 2012
- MyFoxDC, "New York can't scare smokers with graphic images, court ruled," July 12, 2012
- Second Circuit, "Ruling for 94th St. Grocery v. N.Y.C. Bd. of Health," July 10, 2012
- Associated Press, "Court rules NY town's prayer violated Constitution," May 18, 2012
- Fox News, "Court rules NY town's prayer violated Constitution," May 17, 2012
- 13 WHAM, "Federal Appellate Court Overturns Ruling on Prayer at Greece Town Board Meetings," May 17, 2012
- SCOTUSblog.com, "Town of Greece v. Galloway," accessed August 15, 2013
- Reuters, "Citigroup wins in workers' 401(k) stock drop appeal," October 13, 2011
- New York Daily News, "Denied! Federal judge rejected Sen. Hiram Monserrate's plea to stay in office," February 19, 2010
- Monserrate v. New York State Senate, 599 F. 3d 148 - Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit 2010
- Washington Post, "Judge Rules Fed Must Disclose Firms That Accept Aid," August 26, 2009
- Reuters, "Judge puts Fed's bailout revelations on hold," August 28, 2009
- BLOOMBERG, LP v. BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF FED. RES., 601 F. 3d 143
- New York Times, "Judge Rejects Copyright Suit Against Jessica Seinfeld," September 10, 2009
- LAPINE v. Seinfeld, Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit 2010
- Lapine v. Seinfeld, 31 Misc. 3d 736 - NY: Supreme Court 2011
- Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964: Equal Employment Opportunity on FindLaw
- New York Times, "Selected Cases of Judge Sonia Sotomayor," accessed January 25, 2014
- New York Times, "Because of Race: Ricci v. DeStefano - Stanley Fish Blog," July 13, 2009
- SCOTUSblog, "Argument Recap: Ricci v. DeStefano," April 24, 2009
- Legal Information Institute Bulletin, "Ricci v. DeStefano," accessed January 25, 2014
- Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection, "Ricci v. DeStefano," accessed January 25, 2014
- Supremecourt.gov, Ricci v. DeStefano, accessed January 25, 2014
- New York Times, "Sotomayor's Notable Court Opinions and Articles," July 10, 2009
- Christian Science Monitor, "U.S. Supreme Court takes up 'reverse discrimination' case," January 9, 2009
- Time Magazine, "Sonia Sotomayor: A Justice Like No Other," May 28, 2009
- Time Magazine, "Sotomayor Hearing: Why Shouldn't Judges Make Policy," July 16, 2009
- Time Magazine, "How the Republicans Will Go After Sonia Sotomayor," July 13, 2009
- Time Magazine, "Where Sonia Sotomayor Really Stands on Race," June 11, 2009
- OpenJurist.org, "Riverkeeper Inc. v. United States Envrionmental Protection Agency," accessed January 25, 2014
- OpenJurist.org, "Center for Reproductive Law and Policy v. Bush," accessed January 25, 2014
- Washington Post, "Abortion Rights Backers Get Reassurances on Nominee," May 29, 2009
- OpenJurist.org, "John Malesko v. Correctional Services Corporation," accessed January 25, 2014
- History of the Second Circuit on the Federal Judicial Center website
- History of the Commerce Court on the Federal Judicial Center website
- History of the Commerce Court on the Federal Judicial Center website
- History of the Commerce Court on the Federal Judicial Center website
- History of the Second Circuit from the Federal Judicial Center
- United States Courts, Frequently Asked Questions
- United States Courts, "On Being Chief Judge," February 2009
- U.S. General Services Administration, "History of the Thurgood Marshall U.S. Courthouse," accessed February 24, 2014
- The Wall Street Journal Law Blog, "You Can Go Home Again: Second Circuit To Return to Old Digs," January 2, 2013