United States federal courts
The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. The federal courts decide disputes involving the Constitution and laws passed by Congress.
Altogether, almost 1,770 judgeships are authorized in the federal court system. The federal courts hear far fewer cases than do the state courts, but federal court cases tend more often to be of national significance.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the nation and leads the judicial branch of the federal government.
The United States Court of Appeals are the intermediate appellate courts of the nation. It is made up of thirteen different courts.
The United States District Courts are the trial courts of the federal courts. This level of court is comprised of ninety-four different courts.
Individual courts of specific subject-matter jurisdiction
- United States Tax Court, an Article I court
- United States Court of International Trade, an Article III court
- United States Court of Federal Claims, an Article I court
- United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, an Article I court
- United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, an Article I court
- United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, an Article III court
- United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
- Defunct circuit courts
- Defunct federal district courts
- Defunct special jurisdiction courts
- United States Court of Private Land Claims
- United States Commerce Court
Almost 1770 justices and judges are authorized to serve on the federal judiciary. The highest position within the third branch is that of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Article III judges
Article III judges refer to judges who serve on courts authorized by Article III of the Constitution, which created and enumerated the powers of the judiciary. Those judges are: justices of the Supreme Court, judges of the Circuit Courts of Appeal, judges of the District Courts, and judges of the Court of International Trade. These judges are appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by Congress before joining the court. These judges serve life terms. 
Non-article III judges
Bankruptcy judges serve fourteen-year renewable terms after being appointed by the judges of the corresponding Circuit Court of Appeal.
Magistrate judges serve eight-year renewable terms and are appointed by a majority vote of active district judges on the court. 
Non-judge members of the judiciary
The judicial branch is supported by the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts.
The most integral responsibility of the executive branch as pertains to the judiciary is to nominate and appoint judges for service on the federal courts. See this category for a list of every judge appointed by each president throughout our nation's history.
For a list of current vacancies on the federal courts, see the Federal Court Vacancy Warning System.
The Cabinet level post of United States Attorney General is the highest ranking member of the United States Department of Justice. He or she is responsible for the United States Attorneys assigned to each judicial district, as well as the Assistant United States Attorneys serving.
The United States Solicitor General argues cases on behalf of the federal government.
The United States Senate is responsible for confirming federal judges following appointment by the president. The Senate Judiciary Committee evaluates nominees and considers federal legislation pertaining to the third branch.
Senators are also charged with recommending nominees to the president for appointment to federal courts in their respective states.
House of Representatives
The Judiciary Committee of the the United States House of Representatives considers and recommends legislation pertaining to the judicial branch.